Civil Society Organisations and Pathways of Change in the Arab World
Role in Change Process in Arab Spring States
In his memoirs, former US Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, says that he jokingly asked Chinese President Mao Tse-Tung to soften the atmosphere during their first meeting, ‘do you know when the French Revolution ended?’ Mao Tse-Tung cleverly answered ‘has the French Revolution really ended?’ It is rare to find disagreement among historians about the starting points for revolutions and major event that took place in recent centuries, and it is also rare to find consensus between historians about when revolutions ended and the assessment of their effects and achieved goals.
Scholars of social organisation explain the emergence of different communities within societies through the multiplicity of narratives social actors hold.
Effective narrative is capable of transforming a group of humans into an organised social group capable of making an impact, through providing a common understanding for the aims and functions, and mobilising through crystallising the “us”.
Is Fragmentation a Possible Scenario for Syria?
Four years ago, it did not occur to the most pessimistic observers of the Syrian issue that a fragmentation of Syria to small states and kingdoms based on sectarian and ethnic lines would become one of the scenarios in question, when talking about the future of the country. However, the political difficulties, in light of the current lack of a decisive military solution, pushed Syria towards de facto partition, with areas being under the control of different competing parties. Would the current facts on the ground escalate until Syria becomes fragmented into several states, similar to the Iraqi Kurdistan model? Or maybe similar to the Somalien case?
This article seeks to analytically answer the question by exploring the establishment of the Syrian state in the twentieth century, and the possibility of the fragmentation scenario in reality starting with the structural foundations of the Syrian state.
The Islamic Brigades;
Between Moderation and Accusations of Extremism
On September 27th, 2013, the organization Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (a.k.a ISIS) stormed and desecrated the Church of the Lady of Annunciation and the Armenian Catholic Church of Martyrs in Alraqqah. This action -which was denounced by many inside and outside Syria- was preceded by fierce clashes between the aforementioned group and the rebel Northern Storm Brigade (which is labeled as secular).
An Administrative and Critical View of the Syrian Revolution's Entities and Organizations
Statistics in the Republic of Federal Germany indicate that the number of people involved in political parties is almost two millions; this means the percentage of those interested in politics does not exceed (3%) three percent of the German people; however, only one forth of this percentage participate in meetings and party activities on regular basis, and only few have direct influence on the decision making.
Reasons Behind the Failure of Work Groups
in the Syrian Opposition
This article is an attempt to social analysis of the multiplication of revolutionary, military and political entities that appeared during the Syrian revolution, their subsequent premature breaking up before fulfilling the goals they were created for. Moreover, this study also suggests solutions to remedy the weaknesses identified.